Today I am going to upload the best notes of Theories of covalent bonding chapter third of first-year chemistry for MDCA, NMDCAT, ETEA, ECAT, and for FSC students. 
These notes are of the best academy and will help you a lot in your basic concept building and for test preparation. 


1: These notes are in a google drive file 2′: you can access them by clicking the download button below3: also read the most important topics written below4: most important relations are given at the end of the post.5: If you are using a mobile click on the download button and then 3 dots on the right top side and chose the open in drive option. then download…



THESE NOTES WILL HELP YOU A LOT IN THE FOLLOWING TOPICS:1: Chemical bonding2: octet rule 3: duplet rule4: hypo valent5: hypervalent6:ionic bond and ionic character 7: covalent bond and covalent character8: coordinate covalent bond 9: metallic bond10: metallic forces11:Order of forces of various chemical forces12: VSPER Theory13: Isoelectric structures14: ligands15: Resonance16: resonance structures17: resonance hybrid or canonical structure18:condition of resonance 19: resonance in benzene20:kekule structure21: Dewar structure22:Resonance energy 23: types of resonancea: Iso-valent b:Hetero-valent24:Types of electronsa: Localized electronsb: Delocalized electrons25: Conjugated molecules26:valace bond theory (VBT)28:Draw backs of Valance bond theory29: Types of covalent bondsa: sigma bondb: pi bond30: Trick For Finding The Number Of Sigma Bond In A Molecule
31: Hybridization
A: Sp3 Hybridization
B: SpHybridization
C: Sp Hybridization
32: Thermodynamic Stability Factors Of Hybridization
33: Trick To Find The Hybridization Of A Central Atom In A Molecule
34: Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)
35: Paramagnetic Behaviour
36: Diamagnetic Behaviour
37: Ferromagnetic Behaviour
38: Bond Order
39: Bond Order Finding Tricks
40: Explanation F Bond Order Of Helium As Zero
41; Bond Energy
42: Factors Affecting Bond Energy
43: Bond Length
44: Factors Affecting Bond Length
45:Dipole Moment
46: Factors That Affect Dipole Moment47: bonding molecular orbital 48: antibonding molecular orbital49:signifacance of molecular orbital theory50:identification of cis and trans isomer by the dipole moment 
 IMPORTANT RELATIONS :IN BOND ENERGY:(B.E)Electronegativity difference is directly proportional to B.Ebond enthalpy is directly proportional to B.Eatom size is inversely proportional to B.E% of s character has a direct relation with B.Ethe bond length between atoms is directly proportional to B.EC-C Trible bond has a highest energy than C-C double bond and than C-C single bondIN BOND LENGTHS:Bond length is inversely proportional to the electronegativity difference between the bonded atomssize of atoms is directly proportional to the bond length as the size increases the bond length increases% of s character is inversely proportional to the bond length as the s character increases in a molecule For Example if the hybridization in a molecule is sp then the s character will be greater as compare to another type of hybridization so the bond length will decrease.IN DIPOLE MOMENT:Dipole moment has a direct relation with electronegativity difference between the atoms, For Example HCl and HF in this, the dipole moment of HF is greater than HCL because fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine so in result the HF has a high dipole moment.Dipole moment is directly proportional to the lone pair of electrons on an atom. For Example HF, H2O, and NH3 in these the HF have the highest number of lone pairs of the electron that are 3 so it has the highest dipole moment.dipole moment depends on the position of the substituent in ring structures. in this, the order off dipole moment is ortho> meta> para.  Follow our website. you will get all stuff related to ETEA, MDCAT, and NMDCAT entrance tests. All tricks and hints and also practice tests will be available on it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.